The Red Badge of Courage – Chapters XVI–XVII

Summary: Chapter XVI
The men are led to a group of trenches where Wilson promptly
falls asleep. For a time, rumors fly fast and fierce as to the conduct
of the battle and the activities of the enemy. Briefly, Henry glimpses
a column of gray-suited enemy soldiers, and his regiment is quickly marched
into the forest. Henry begins complaining bitterly about his army’s
leadership, blaming the generals for their failure to win battles.
When another soldier mocks him, however, Henry falls silent, afraid
that he will be exposed as a fraud. The lieutenant shepherds the
men to a spot in the woods, where he says they will encounter the
enemy in only a few minutes. As the battle roar swells to a thunder,
the men wearily await the fight.
Summary: Chapter XVII
After a maddening and intense period of waiting for the
inevitable, the enemy sweeps down upon the line of blue-uniformed
men. Seized by a feverish hatred of the enemy, Henry fights in a
frenzy, firing and reloading and refusing to retreat. In the heat
and smoke, he is aware of nothing but his own rage. After a while,
he hears one of his comrades laughing and realizes that he is firing
at nothing; the battle is over, the enemy has fled. His regiment
now regards Henry with awe, regaling him with stories of his ferocious
prowess in the combat. The lieutenant tells Henry that if he had
ten thousand “wildcats” like him, he could win the war in a week.
Strangely, Henry feels as though he himself had nothing to do with
his brave exploits; rather, it was as if he fell asleep and woke
to find himself a knight. The exultant soldiers congratulate one
another happily, and chatter about how many men the enemy lost in
the battle. In the bright blue sky, the sun shines gaily, marred
only by a cloud of dark smoke from the fighting.
Analysis: Chapters XVI–XVII
Although he has no firsthand knowledge of battle at the
beginning of this chapter, Henry persists in his self-congratulatory
and undeservedly condescending behavior by criticizing the generals
as incompetents. Now that a battle is again imminent, however, some of
Henry’s comfortable security seems to dissipate. He again begins to
worry—not about his personal safety this time, but about the possibility
of being exposed as a fraud. Though he has been willing to let the
views of his companions determine—and even replace—his own perception
of truth, Henry remains uncomfortably conscious of the fact that
he is involved in an elaborate lie.
Though it mainly offers brief, impressionistic snapshots
of battle and does not deeply involve the main themes of the novel,
Chapter XVII is, in many ways, the turning point in The
Red Badge of Courage. Henry’s emotions during this third
skirmish change from terror to blind rage, and as he fights he becomes
the wildest and fiercest soldier in the regiment. Again, it is important
to note that Henry’s transformation has little to do with conventional
notions of bravery; he does not consciously become a better soldier
by renewing his commitment to the Union cause and mustering up his
courage. Instead, his self-awareness—that wellspring of vanity,
selfishness, and misguided judgments—suddenly vanishes just as it
did in the first battle. Unlike that engagement, however, Henry
no longer feels that he is part of a machine. He simply loses himself
in a wild fury directed at himself for having behaved like a coward,
at the universe for its indifference, and at the enemy. One can
argue that even at this point, Henry’s narcissism still serves as
his primary motivation for behaving like the hero he dreams of being;
the ideals of the Union army could not compel him to fight as fiercely
as his own frustration with his earlier gutlessness.
Still, knowledge of his successful participation in battle
begins to calm Henry’s hypersensitivity to, and dependence on, the
opinions of his peers. Whereas Henry once eagerly reveled in any
word of praise from his comrades, even unjustified ones, he now
seems to distrust their accolades which do not correspond to his
own recollection of the fighting. He perceives that the reality
of war does not match its mythology: “By this struggle he had overcome
obstacles which he had admitted to be mountains. They had fallen
like paper peaks, and he was now what he called a hero. And he had
not been aware of the process.” After this battle, Henry is able
to trust that he has performed real and important deeds. While this
realization does not restore his belief in the relevance of humanity’s
arbitrary moral conventions to the indifferent universe, it does
commence the painstaking process of his maturation, as he feels
the satisfaction of knowing that he has done right.